Unit 1: Cell Structure and Function
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell architecture, Cell wall, plasma membrane, Structure
and function of cell organelles: vacuoles, mitochondria, plastids, golgi apparatus, ER,
peroxisomes, glyoxisomes. Cell division, regulation of cell cycle, Protein secretion and
targeting, Cell division, growth and differentiation.

Unit 2: Biomolecules and Metabolism
Structure and function of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids,
Synthesis of carbohydrate, glycolysis, HMP, Citric acid cycle and metabolic
regulation, Oxidative phosphorylation and substrate level phosphorylation, Vitamins,
plant and animal hormones. Functional molecules, antioxidants, nutrient precursor,
HSPs, anti-viral compounds.

Unit 3: Enzymology
Enzymes, structure conformation, classification, assay, isolation, purification and
characterization, catariysis specificity, mechanism of action, active site, regulation of
enzyme activity, multienzyme complexes, immobilized enzymes and protein
engineering, immobilized enzymes and their application.

Unit 4: Molecular Genetics
Concept of gene, Prokaryotes as genetic system, Prokaryotic and eukaryotic
chromosomes, methods of gene isolation and identification, Split genes, overlapping
genes and pseudo genes, Organization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes and
genomes including operan, exon, intron, enhancer promoter sequences and other
regulatory elements. Mutation – spontaneous, induced and site-directed,
recombination in bacteria, fungi and viruses, transformation, transduction,
conjugation, transposable elements and transposition.

Unit 5: Gene Expression
Expression of genetic information, operon concept, Transcription – mechanism of
transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, transcription unit, regulatory sequences
and enhancers, activators, repressors, co-activators, Co-repressors in prokaryotes
and eukaryotes, inducible genes and promoters, Transcription factors post
transcriptional modification and protein transport, DNA-protein interaction, Genetic
code. Mechanism of translation and its control, post translational modifications.

Unit 6: Molecular Biology Techniques
Isolation and purification of nucleic acids. Nucleic acids hybridization: Southern,
northern and western blotting hybridization. Immune response monoclonal and
polyclonal antibodies and ELISA, DNA sequencing. Construction and screening of
genomic and C-DNA libraries. Gel electrophoretic techniques. Polymerase chain
reactor spectroscopy, rtPCR ultracentrifugation, chromatography, FISH, RIA etc.

Unit 7: Gene Cloning
Restriction enzymes and their uses. Salient features and uses of most commonly
used vectors i.e. plasmids, bacteriophages, phagmids, cosmids, BACs, PACs and
YACs, binary vectors, expression vectors. Gene cloning and sub-cloning strategies,
chromosome walking, genetic transformation, Basis of animal cloning. Biology. Risk
assessment and IPR.

Unit 8: Molecular Biology
Ribosome structure and function. Protein biosynthesis in prokaryotes and ekaryotes.
Post-translational modification. Gene regulation, RNA processing and Post
transcriptional modifications. Bioprospecting, biofortification, gene pryrimiding and
gene fusion, nbozyme technology.

Unit 9: Plant Molecular Biology
Photoregulation and phytochrome regulation of nuclear and chloroplastic gene
expression. Molecular mechanism of nitrogen fixation. Molecular biology of various
stresses, viz. abiotic stresses like drought, salt, heavy metals and temperature; and
biotic stresses like bacterial, fungal and viral diseases. Signal transduction and its
molecular basis, molecular mechanism of plant hormone action mitochondrial control
of fertility, structure, organization and regulation of nuclear gene concerning storage
proteins and starch synthesis.

Unit 10: Tissue Culture
Basic techniques in cell culture and somatic cell genetics. Regulation of cell cycle and
cell division.. Clonal propagation. Concept of cellular totipotency. Anther culture,
somaclonal and gametoclonal variations. Hybrid embryo culture and embryo rescue,
somatic hybridization and cybridization. Application of tissue culture in crop
improvement. Secondary metabolite production. In vitro, mutagenesis,
cryopreservation and plant tissue culture repository.

Unit 11: Plant Genetic Engineering
Isolation of genes of economic importance. Gene constructs for tissue-specific
expression. Different methods of gene transfer to plants, viz. direct and vectormediated. Molecular analysis of transformants. Potential applications of plant genetic
engineering for crop improvement, i.e. insect-pest resistance (insect, viral, fungal and
bacterial disease resistance), abiotic stress resistance, herbicide resistance, storage
protein quality, increasing shelf-life, oil quality, Current status of transgenics,
biosafty norms and controlled field trials and release of transgenics (GMOs).

Unit 12: Molecular Markers and Genomics
DNA molecular markers: Principles, type and applications; restriction fragment length
polymorphism (RFLP), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), randomly
amplified polymorphic DNA sequences (RAPD), Simple sequence repeats (SSR), Single
nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), Structural and functional genomics, gene mapping,
genome mapping, gene tagging and comparative genomics and application of